The term mountaineering describes the sport of rock climbing. While some scholars identify mountaineering-related activities as climbing (rock and ice) and trekking up mountains other people are also adding backpacking, hiking, skiing, via ferrata and wilderness activities, and still others claim that
Bear Creek Mountain Ski Pass 2 Day Price Lift Resort Season activities also include indoor climbing, sport climbing and bouldering. However, to the majority of of the scholars, the word mountaineering is understood as climbing (which now is the term for adventure climbing or sports climbing) and trekking (hill walking in 'exotic' places).
Hiking out in the wild may also be a simple kind of mountaineering if it involves scrambling, or short stretches of the more basic grades of mountain climbing, along with crossing glaciers.
While mountaineering began as tries to achieve the highest point of unclimbed big mountains it's branched into specializations that address different aspects of the mountain and contains three areas: rock-craft, snow-craft, and skiing, depending on if the route chosen has ended rock, snow or ice. All require experience, athletic ability, and technical knowledge to maintain safety.
Mountaineering is usually called Alpinism, especially in European languages, which means climbing routes with minimal equipment in high and quite often snow and ice-covered mountains such as the Alps, where technical difficulties frequently exceed environmental and physical challenges. A mountaineer who pursues this more technical and minimalist kind of rock climbing might be called an Alpinist, although use of the term may vary between countries and eras. The word "alpinism" was born in the 19th century to refer to climbing when considering enjoying climbing itself as a sport or recreation, distinct from merely climbing while hunting or as a religious pilgrimage which had been done generally during those times.
The UIAA or Union Internationale des Associations d'Alpinisme could be the world governing body in mountaineering and climbing, addressing issues like access, medical, mountain protection, safety, youth and ice climbing.
Compacted snow conditions allow mountaineers to succeed on foot. Frequently crampons are needed to travel efficiently over snow and ice. Crampons adhere to a mountaineer's boots to provide additional traction on hard snow (névé) and ice. Using various techniques from alpine skiing and
Bear Creek Mountain Ski Pass 2 Day Price Lift Resort Season to ascend/descend a mountain is often a kind of the sport on its own, called ski mountaineering. Ascending and descending a snow slope safely requires the using an ice axe and many different footwork techniques that were developed in the last century, mainly in Europe (e.g. French technique and German technique). The advancement of footwork from the lowest angle slopes towards the steepest terrain is first to splay feet to a rising traverse, to kicking steps, to front pointing the crampons. The advancement of ice axe technique from the lowest angle slopes towards the steepest terrain is to use the ice axe first as a walking stick, then a stake, then to use leading pick as a dagger below the shoulders or above, last but not least to swinging the pick into the slope within the head. These various techniques may involve questions of differing ice-axe design depending on terrain, and in many cases whether a mountaineer uses 1 or 2 ice axes. Anchors for the rope in snow are often unreliable, and can include the snow stakes, called pickets, deadman devices called flukes that are fashioned from aluminium, or devised from buried objects that could include an ice axe, skis, rocks or any other objects. Bollards, that are simply carved beyond consolidated snow or ice, also sometimes serve as anchors.