The term mountaineering describes the game of climbing. While some scholars identify mountaineering-related activities as climbing (rock and ice) and trekking up mountains other people are also adding backpacking, hiking, skiing, via ferrata and wilderness activities, and still others state that
Winter Mountaineering Course Alps California Chamonix New Zealand Wales Courses Canada Europe Lake District Uk activities likewise incorporate indoor climbing, sport climbing and bouldering. However, to most from the scholars, the phrase mountaineering is understood as climbing (which now describes adventure climbing or sports climbing) and trekking (hill walking in 'exotic' places).
Hiking out in the wild can even be an easy type of mountaineering when it involves scrambling, or short stretches from the more basic grades of mountaineering, along with crossing glaciers.
While mountaineering began as attempts to achieve the highest point of unclimbed big mountains it's got branched into specializations that address different aspects from the mountain and consists of three areas: rock-craft, snow-craft, and skiing, based on if the route chosen ends rock, snow or ice. All require experience, athletic ability, and technical knowledge to maintain safety.
Mountaineering is often called Alpinism, especially in European languages, which suggests climbing routes with minimal equipment in high and quite often snow and ice-covered mountains for example the Alps, where technical difficulties frequently exceed environmental and physical challenges. A mountaineer who pursues this more technical and minimalist kind of climbing might be called an Alpinist, although use from the term can vary between countries and eras. The word "alpinism" was given birth to within the nineteenth century to refer to climbing with regards to enjoying climbing itself as a sport or recreation, distinct from merely climbing while hunting or as a religious pilgrimage that was done generally at that time.
The UIAA or Union Internationale des Associations d'Alpinisme may be the world governing body in mountaineering and climbing, addressing issues like access, medical, mountain protection, safety, youth and ice climbing.
Compacted snow conditions allow mountaineers to advance on foot. Frequently crampons have to travel efficiently over snow and ice. Crampons affix to a mountaineer's boots to offer additional traction on hard snow (névé) and ice. Using various techniques from alpine skiing and
Winter Mountaineering Course Alps California Chamonix New Zealand Wales Courses Canada Europe Lake District Uk to ascend/descend a mountain is really a type of the game by itself, called ski mountaineering. Ascending and descending a snow slope safely necessitates the using an ice axe and lots of different footwork techniques that have been developed in the last century, mainly in Europe (e.g. French technique and German technique). The continuing development of footwork from the lowest angle slopes towards the steepest terrain is first to splay your feet to your rising traverse, to kicking steps, to front pointing the crampons. The continuing development of ice axe technique from the lowest angle slopes towards the steepest terrain is by using the ice axe first as a walking stick, a stake, then to use the leading pick as a dagger below the shoulders or higher, last but not least to swinging the pick in to the slope over the head. These various techniques may involve questions of differing ice-axe design based on terrain, as well as whether a mountaineer uses 1 or 2 ice axes. Anchors for that rope in snow are often unreliable, and will include the snow stakes, called pickets, deadman devices called flukes which can be fashioned from aluminium, or devised from buried objects that might have an ice axe, skis, rocks or any other objects. Bollards, which can be simply carved beyond consolidated snow or ice, also sometimes work as anchors.