The term mountaineering describes the experience of climbing. While some scholars identify mountaineering-related activities as climbing (rock and ice) and trekking up mountains other people are also adding backpacking, hiking, skiing, via ferrata and wilderness activities, and still others state that
Basic Mountaineering Course New Zealand Beginner Training Courses activities include indoor climbing, sport climbing and bouldering. However, to most in the scholars, the definition of mountaineering is understood as climbing (which now refers to adventure climbing or sports climbing) and trekking (hill walking in 'exotic' places).
Hiking out in the wild can also be an easy way of mountaineering if it involves scrambling, or short stretches in the more basic grades of mountain climbing, in addition to crossing glaciers.
While mountaineering began as efforts to reach the highest point of unclimbed big mountains they have branched into specializations that address different factors in the mountain and consists of three areas: rock-craft, snow-craft, and skiing, based on if the route chosen is finished rock, snow or ice. All require experience, athletic ability, and technical knowledge to keep safety.
Mountaineering is usually called Alpinism, specially in European languages, which implies climbing routes with minimal equipment in high and frequently snow and ice-covered mountains such as the Alps, where technical difficulties frequently exceed environmental and physical challenges. A mountaineer who pursues this more technical and minimalist design of climbing might be called an Alpinist, although use in the term can vary between countries and eras. The word "alpinism" was created inside the 1800s to refer to climbing for the purpose of enjoying climbing itself as a sport or recreation, distinct from merely climbing while hunting or as a religious pilgrimage that had been done generally then.
The UIAA or Union Internationale des Associations d'Alpinisme will be the world governing body in mountaineering and climbing, addressing issues like access, medical, mountain protection, safety, youth and ice climbing.
Compacted snow conditions allow mountaineers to succeed on foot. Frequently crampons have to travel efficiently over snow and ice. Crampons adhere to a mountaineer's boots to offer additional traction on hard snow (névé) and ice. Using various techniques from alpine skiing and
Basic Mountaineering Course New Zealand Beginner Training Courses to ascend/descend a mountain can be a way of the experience on it's own, called ski mountaineering. Ascending and descending a snow slope safely necessitates the utilization of an ice axe and a lot of different footwork techniques that have been developed in the last century, mainly in Europe (e.g. French technique and German technique). The growth of footwork in the lowest angle slopes to the steepest terrain is first to splay feet to a rising traverse, to kicking steps, to front pointing the crampons. The growth of ice axe technique in the lowest angle slopes to the steepest terrain is with the ice axe first as a walking stick, then this stake, then to use top pick as a dagger below the shoulders or higher, lastly to swinging the pick into the slope over the head. These various techniques may involve questions of differing ice-axe design based on terrain, and also whether a mountaineer uses a couple of ice axes. Anchors for the rope in snow are often unreliable, and will include the snow stakes, called pickets, deadman devices called flukes which are fashioned from aluminium, or devised from buried objects that might have an ice axe, skis, rocks or other objects. Bollards, which are simply carved from consolidated snow or ice, also sometimes work as anchors.